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Violence Prevention through Magnesium-Rich Water

by Paul Mason, Pres.

Healthy Water Association

 

Magnesium-deficiency causes serotonin-deficiency 1,2,3,4,5 with possible resultant aberrant behaviour, including depression 6,7 suicide 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17 or irrational violence. 18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43

The US National Academy of Science's Food & Nutrition Board has established that the average American 14 or older is magnesium-deficient. 44 The typical American diet does NOT provide the RDA of Mg for age 14 or older. 45

Mean Daily Intake for MALES 9 and older is 323 mg/day. 46

RDA for boys 14-18 is 410 mg/day. SHORTFALL: 87 mg/day 47
RDA for males 19-30 is 400 mg/day. SHORTFALL: 77 mg/day 48
RDA for males 31-70 is 420 mg/day. SHORTFALL: 97 mg/day 49

Mean Daily Intake for FEMALES 9 and older is 228 mg/day. 50

RDA for girls 14-18 is 360 mg/day SHORTFALL: 132 mg/day 51
RDA for pregnancy 14-18 is 400 mg/day SHORTFALL: 172 mg/day 52
RDA for women 19-30 is 310 mg/day SHORTFALL: 82 mg/day 53
RDA for pregnancy 19-30 is 400 mg/day SHORTFALL: 172 mg/day 54
RDA for women 31-70 is 350 mg/day. SHORTFALL: 122 mg/day 55
RDA for pregnancy 31-50 is 360 mg/day SHORTFALL: 132 mg/day 56

Blacks and Hispanics are more magnesium-deficient than whites. 57,58

Many diseases are related to magnesium deficiency, and may be prevented or treated with magnesium-rich water:

Aggressive Behavior 59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76, 77,78,79,80,81,82,83,84,85
Alcoholism 86,87,88
Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis 89
Arrhythmia 90,91,92,93,94,95
Asthma 96,97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109
Attention Deficit Disorder 110,111,112
Cancer 113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121
Cerebral Palsy 122,123,124,125
Cerebrovascular 126,127,128,129,130,131,132
Chronic Fatigue 133,134,135,136,137,138
Cluster Headaches 139
Constipation 140,141
Diabetes 142,143,144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151
Fibromyalgia 152
Fluoride Toxicity 153,154,155
Head Injuries 156
Heart-Related Conditions 157,158,159,160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172, 173,174,175,176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188, 189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,202,203
HIV 204
Hypertension 205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213
Kidney Stones 214,215,216,217,218,219,220,221
Magnesium Deficiency 222,223,224,225,226
Migraine 227,228,229,230,231,232,233,234,235,236,237,238
Multiple Sclerosis 239,240,241,242
Osteoporosis 243,244,245,246
Pregnancy-related problems 247,248,249,250,251,252
Premenstrual Syndrome 253,254,255,256,257
Psychiatric Disorders 258,259,260,261,262,263,264
Rheumatoid Arthritis 265,266
Sickle Cell Disease 267,268
Sports-related problems 269,270,271,272
Stress 273
Toxic Shock 274

To meet the new RDA's for Mg established Sept. 1999 by the NAS 275 , reduce disease, and prevent violence, it is proposed that juvenile delinquents and inmates be switched to naturally magnesium-rich hard-water sources containing at least 100 mg/L or fortify tap-water supplies of corrections facilities to that level with magnesium bi-carbonate (which tastes like good, sweet hard water). If inmates consumed 1.5 liters of Mg-rich water per day, they would be getting 150 mg/day from water, covering the shortfall for all non-pregnant juveniles and inmates.

No magnesium-deficient soft-drinks should be allowed, but most other beverages would be OK, as milk skim (140 mg/L) 276 , orange juice (110 mg/L) 277 , and chocolate (syrup 630 mg/L) 278 are rich in Mg. Phosphate in colas inhibits uptake of Mg. 279

Anecdotal experience suggests that 300 mg/day supplementation may yield behaviour improvements in just a few days, but juveniles and inmates may not reliably take pills. Full repletion may take a year. 280 More information on magnesium-and-violence is available at violence.shtml

Juvenile delinquents and inmates are probably much more magnesium-deficient than average due to backgrounds of alcohol, drugs, bad diets, and stress. Magnesium deficiency is hard to test without tissue samples, because serum levels mask intracellular and bone levels. 281 Only extreme magnesium deficiency shows up in serum tests.

Drugs that cause loss of body magnesium:

Alcohol 282,283,284,285,286,287,288
Alcohol-withdrawal-stress 289
Cocaine 290
Beta-adrenergic agonists 291 (for asthma)
Corticosteroids (CS) 292 (for asthma)
Theophylline 293 (for asthma)
Diuretics 294,295
Thiazide 296
Caffeine. 297,298,299
Phosphates (found in cola drinks) 300

OTHER CAUSES OF LOSS OF Mg:
Physical or mental stress 301,302
Dietary fat 303
Dietary fiber 304,305,306,307
Dietary Calcium 308,309,310,311,312

Why depend on Mg-in-water instead of Mg in food?

There is no established way of fortifying foods with magnesium without adversely affecting texture or flavor. Magnesium in water is 30% more bio-available than Mg in food. 313,314,315,316,317 The food supply has been steadily becoming magnesium-poor since 1909. 318

1909 intake 408 mg/day
1949 intake 368 mg/day
1980 intake 349 mg/day
1985 intake 323 mg/day (men)
1985 intake 228 mg/day (women)

Explanations for the decline of magnesium in the American diet include more food processing 319,320,321 , soil-exhaustion 322,323,324,325,326,327,328 , the FDA's destruction of the American mineral water industry in the 1930's 329,330,331 , and the development of softer tap water reservoirs to replace the hard water of streams and wells. 332,333,334,335,336,337

To get enough Mg from food, juveniles and inmates would have to eat unprocessed foods, whole grains, and leafy greens like spinach and broccoli. Switching to partially-whole-grain breads and buns might be possible, but salads, spinach, and broccoli ?? Not likely.

Why depend on Mg-in-water instead of Mg-tablets?

One reason for depending on Mg-in-water instead of issuing supplement tablets is that participation is certain with water, while tablets may often be discarded by subjects.

Until repletion is achieved, magnesium tablets may be useful as an adjunct to magnesium-rich water, but cannot be relied on as a replacement for Mg-rich water because inmates may spit out or discard tablets. The upper limit of intake during repletion is set by the "laxative effect" of high intake, which for some individuals may begin with pills of 300 mg. Water-borne Mg is effectively a "divided dose" consumed throughout the day, and no laxative effect has been noticed at levels as high as 325 mg/liter. The NAS has addressed "upper intake limits" in their review of Dietary Reference Intakes, 1997. 338

Tablets or pills may have an image problem ---- giving drugs to kids. No one can complain about natural spring water that is commonly sold in supermarkets in California, and bottled in California. Bottled water tastes better than tap water, and tastes much better than tablets.

Dr. Janice Jaworsky, Director of Research for the Koch Crime Institute, states, "The Koch Crime Institute would be most interested in pursuing this project as a partner." The Koch Institute may be instrumental in extending the same concept to the other 49 states, and to the public school system to prevent violence.

Particularly in the case of juvenile wards of the state, the DOJ may have a duty to provide its wards with the Recommended Daily Allowance of nutrients. Magnesium is routinely used to prevent fighting and tail-biting among hogs, and reduce stress as they are readied for slaughter. Livestock are generally better nutritioned than kids.

10/31/99

ENDNOTES

1 Breslau, N.; Davis, G. C. Migraine, physical health and psychiatric disorder: a prospective epidemiologic study in young adults. J Psychiatr Res. 1993 Apr-Jun.

2 Swanson, Don R. Migraine and Magnesium: Eleven Neglected Connections. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 1988 Summer.

3 Mauskop, A.; Altura, B. T.; Cracco, R. Q.; Altura, B. M. Deficiency in serum ionized magnesium but not ICa 2/IMg 2 total in patients with migraines. Possible role of ratio. Headache. 1993 March.

4 Gallai, Virgilio; Sarchielli, Paola; Morucci, Piero; Abbritti, Giuseppe. Red blood cell magnesium levels in migraine patients. Cephalagia. 1993.

5 Gallai, Virgilio; Sarchielli, Paola; Coata, Giuliana; Firenze, Caterina; Morucci, Piero; Abbritti, Giuseppe. Serum and salivary magnesium levels in migraine. Results in a group of juvenile patients, Headache. 1992 March.

6 Bricklin, Mark. New respect for nutritional healing. (Editorial). v44, Prevention. Feb 1992.

7 Facchinetti, Fabio; Borella, Paola; Sances, Grazia; Fioroni, Loredana; Nappi, Rossella E; Genazzani, Andrea R. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes, Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1991 August.

8 Hrdina, P. D.; Demeter, E.; Vu, T. B.; Sotonyi, P.; Palkovits, M. 5-HT uptake sites and 5-HT2 receptors in brain of antidepressant-free suicide victims/depressives: increase in 5-HT2 sites in cortex andamygdala. Brain Res. 1993 Jun 18.

9 Trasskman-Bendz, L.; Alling, C.; Alsen, M.; Regnell, G.; Simonsson, Pl; Ohman, R. The role of monoamines in suicidal behavior. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1993.

10 Naranjo, C. A.; Bremner, K. E. Behavioural correlates of alcohol intoxication. Addiction. 1993 Jan.

11 Stein, D. J.; Hollander, E.; Liebowitz, M. R. Neurobiology of impulsivity and the impulse control disorders. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993 Winter.

12 Spoont, M. R. Modulatory role of serotonin in neural information processing: implications for human psychopathology. Psychol Bull. 1992 Sep.

13 Nordstrom, P.; Asberg, M. Suicide risk and serotonin. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1992 Jun.

14 Linnoila, V. M.; Virkkunen, M. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin. J Clin Psychiatry, 1992 Oct.

15 Mann, J. J.; McBride, P. A.: Anderson, G. M.; Mieczkowski, T. A. Platelet and whole blood serotonin content in depressed inpatients: correlations with acute and life-time psychopathology. Biol Psychiatry. 1992 Aug 1.

16 Allman, William F. The Evolution of Aggression. U.S. News and World Report. May 11, 1992, p.58.

17 Schimatschek HF, Hickl R, Classen HG: [Magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus levels in the serum of children with functional disorders. Preliminary data of a multicenter epidemiologic study with special emphasis on magnesium.] Magnesium Bull 10:105-113, 1988. (in German)

18 Hrdina, P. D.; Demeter, E.; Vu, T. B.; Sotonyi, P.; Palkovits, M. 5-HT uptake sites and 5-HT2 receptors in brain of antidepressant-free suicide victims/depressives: increase in 5-HT2 sites in cortex andamygdala. Brain Res. 1993 Jun 18.

19 Trasskman-Bendz, L.; Alling, C.; Alsen, M.; Regnell, G.; Simonsson, Pl; Ohman, R. The role of monoamines in suicidal behavior. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1993.

20 Naranjo, C. A.; Bremner, K. E. Behavioural correlates of alcohol intoxication. Addiction. 1993 Jan.

21 Stein, D. J.; Hollander, E.; Liebowitz, M. R. Neurobiology of impulsivity and the impulse control disorders. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993 Winter.

22 Spoont, M. R. Modulatory role of serotonin in neural information processing: implications for human psychopathology. Psychol Bull. 1992 Sep.

23 Nordstrom, P.; Asberg, M. Suicide risk and serotonin. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1992 Jun.

24 Linnoila, V. M.; Virkkunen, M. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin. J Clin Psychiatry, 1992 Oct.

25 Mann, J. J.; McBride, P. A.: Anderson, G. M.; Mieczkowski, T. A. Platelet and whole blood serotonin content in depressed inpatients: correlations with acute and life-time psychopathology. Biol Psychiatry. 1992 Aug 1.

26 Allman, William F. The Evolution of Aggression. U.S. News and World Report. May 11, 1992, p.58.

27 Schimatschek HF, Hickl R, Classen HG: [Magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus levels in the serum of children with functional disorders. Preliminary data of a multicenter epidemiologic study with special emphasis on magnesium.] Magnesium Bull 10:105-113, 1988. (in German)

28 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=9145932&dopt=Abstract
Physiol Behav 1997 May;61(5):653-8
Mice selected for low and high blood magnesium levels: a new model for stress studies.
Henrotte JG, Franck G, Santarromana M, Frances H, Mouton D, Motta R
Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, C.N.R.S., Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
A new animal model for the study of magnesium metabolism and its relationships with catecholamines, stress sensitivity, and aggressive behavior.

29 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=7669506&dopt=Abstract
Magnes Res 1995 Mar;8(1):37-45
Inhibition of mouse-killing behaviour in magnesium-deficient rats: effect of pharmacological doses of magnesium pidolate, magnesium aspartate, magnesium lactate, magnesium gluconate and magnesium chloride.
Bac P, Pages N, Herrenknecht C, Teste JF
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculte de Pharmacie, Chatenay-Malabry, France.
Magnesium deprivation induced interspecific aggressive behaviour (muricidal behaviour) in rats undoubtedly attributable to magnesium deficiency since magnesium chloride, by correcting magnesium deficiency, suppressed it.

30 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=7800167&dopt=Abstract
Neuropsychobiology 1994;30(2-3):73-8
Plasma magnesium levels in a population of psychiatric patients: correlations with symptoms.
Kirov GK, Birch NJ, Steadman P, Ramsey RG
Warlingham Park Hospital, UK.
Mg levels varied widely, with 22.4% below, and 10.4% above the normal range. There was a strong association for more disturbed and excitable patients to have abnormal (either high or low) levels.

31 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2508152&dopt=Abstract
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1989;99(2):181-8
Magnesium alters the potency of cocaine and haloperidol on mouse aggression.
Kantak KM
Department of Psychology, Boston University, MA 02215.

32 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2880351&dopt=Abstract
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1986 Dec;25(6):1195-9
Stimulant-like effects of magnesium on aggression in mice.
Izenwasser SE, Garcia-Valdez K, Kantak KM
In mice injected with 125 mg/kg threat and attack behaviors were decreased.

33 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=6215091&dopt=Abstract
C R Seances Soc Biol Fil 1982;176(3):278-82
[Inhibitory effect of magnesium on the vocalization and fighting of cats treated with carbachol and eserine].
[Article in French]
Samardzic R, Krstic S, Terzic B, Beleslin D
Magnesium sulfate injected into the cerebral ventricles of conscious cats inhibited the vocalization and the fighting

34 http://www.healthy.net/library/journals/ortho/issue7.1/Jom-mw1.htm
Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995
Nutritional Influences on Aggressive Behavior
Melvyn R. Werbach, M.D.
Lower levels of magnesium supplementation increase the number of attacks on intruders while higher levels have the opposite effect.21

35 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=1876145&dopt=Abstract
NIDA Res Monogr 1991;105:615-6
Changes in the behavioral effects of cocaine by magnesium in squirrel monkeys.
Kantak KM
Boston Univ.

36 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2436535&dopt=Abstract
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1986;487:221-30
Aminergic studies and cerebrospinal fluid cations in suicide.
Banki CM, Arato M, Kilts CD
CSF magnesium was found to be significantly lower in the suicide attempters

37 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2578829&dopt=Abstract
Biol Psychiatry 1985 Feb;20(2):163-71
Cerebrospinal fluid magnesium and calcium related to amine metabolites, diagnosis, and suicide attempts.
Banki CM, Vojnik M, Papp Z, Balla KZ, Arato M
CSF magnesium was found to be significantly lower in both depression and adjustment disorder

38 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2578258&dopt=Abstract
Am J Psychiatry 1985 Jan;142(1):147-8
Biochemical markers for suicidal behavior.
Banki CM

39 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=837537&dopt=Abstract
Clin Chem 1977 Mar;23(3):485-9
Copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurological diseases.
Bogden JD, Troiano RA, Joselow MM

40 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2671634&dopt=Abstract
Neurol Clin 1989 Aug;7(3):509-23
Neurologic manifestations of fluid and electrolyte disturbances.
Riggs JE
West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown.
Hypomagnesemia (hypoMg) produce CNS and PNS irritability with seizures and tetany, respectively, being the major clinical manifestations.

41 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2671634&dopt=Abstract
Neurol Clin 1989 Aug;7(3):509-23
Neurologic manifestations of fluid and electrolyte disturbances.
Riggs JE
West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown.
Hypomagnesemia (hypoMg) produce CNS and PNS irritability with seizures and tetany, respectively, being the major clinical manifestations.

42 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=5781962&dopt=Abstract
Br J Psychiatry 1969 Jan;115(518):69-79
Brain electrolytes in depressive and alcoholic suicides.
Shaw DM, Frizel D, Camps FE, White S

43 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=4153287&dopt=Abstract
Psychosomatics 1971 Jul-Aug;12(4):260-72
Biochemistry of affective disorders. (A review of the literature).
Aillon GA

44 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. Pages 6-5, 6-21, 6-22, 6-26.
exhibitk.shtml Note: The final report on Dietary Reference Intakes (hardcover book) was released Sept. 1999, with identical numbers and only slight refinements of text.

45 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

46 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

47 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

48 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

49 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

50 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

51 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

52 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

53 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

54 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

55 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

56 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

57 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. Page 6-5 . exhibitk.shtml

58 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=9595243&dopt=Abstract

59 http://www.healthy.net/library/journals/ortho/issue7.1/Jom-mw1.htm

60 Hrdina, P. D.; Demeter, E.; Vu, T. B.; Sotonyi, P.; Palkovits, M. 5-HT uptake sites and 5-HT2 receptors in brain of antidepressant-free suicide victims/depressives: increase in 5-HT2 sites in cortex andamygdala. Brain Res. 1993 Jun 18.

61 Trasskman-Bendz, L.; Alling, C.; Alsen, M.; Regnell, G.; Simonsson, Pl; Ohman, R. The role of monoamines in suicidal behavior. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1993.

62 Naranjo, C. A.; Bremner, K. E. Behavioural correlates of alcohol intoxication. Addiction. 1993 Jan.

63 Stein, D. J.; Hollander, E.; Liebowitz, M. R. Neurobiology of impulsivity and the impulse control disorders. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993 Winter.

64 Spoont, M. R. Modulatory role of serotonin in neural information processing: implications for human psychopathology. Psychol Bull. 1992 Sep.

65 Nordstrom, P.; Asberg, M. Suicide risk and serotonin. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1992 Jun.

66 Linnoila, V. M.; Virkkunen, M. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin. J Clin Psychiatry, 1992 Oct.

67 Mann, J. J.; McBride, P. A.: Anderson, G. M.; Mieczkowski, T. A. Platelet and whole blood serotonin content in depressed inpatients: correlations with acute and life-time psychopathology. Biol Psychiatry. 1992 Aug 1.

68 Allman, William F. The Evolution of Aggression. U.S. News and World Report. May 11, 1992, p.58.

69 Schimatschek HF, Hickl R, Classen HG: [Magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus levels in the serum of children with functional disorders. Preliminary data of a multicenter epidemiologic study with special emphasis on magnesium.] Magnesium Bull 10:105-113, 1988. (in German)

70 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=9145932&dopt=Abstract Physiol Behav 1997 May;61(5):653-8
Mice selected for low and high blood magnesium levels: a new model for stress studies.
Henrotte JG, Franck G, Santarromana M, Frances H, Mouton D, Motta R
Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, C.N.R.S., Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
A new animal model for the study of magnesium metabolism and its relationships with catecholamines, stress sensitivity, and aggressive behavior.

71 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=7669506&dopt=Abstract
Magnes Res 1995 Mar;8(1):37-45
Inhibition of mouse-killing behaviour in magnesium-deficient rats: effect of pharmacological doses of magnesium pidolate, magnesium aspartate, magnesium lactate, magnesium gluconate and magnesium chloride.
Bac P, Pages N, Herrenknecht C, Teste JF
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculte de Pharmacie, Chatenay-Malabry, France.
Magnesium deprivation induced interspecific aggressive behaviour (muricidal behaviour) in rats undoubtedly attributable to magnesium deficiency since magnesium chloride, by correcting magnesium deficiency, suppressed it.

72 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=7800167&dopt=Abstract
Neuropsychobiology 1994;30(2-3):73-8
Plasma magnesium levels in a population of psychiatric patients: correlations with symptoms.
Kirov GK, Birch NJ, Steadman P, Ramsey RG
Warlingham Park Hospital, UK.
Mg levels varied widely, with 22.4% below, and 10.4% above the normal range. There was a strong association for more disturbed and excitable patients to have abnormal (either high or low) levels.

73 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2508152&dopt=Abstract
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1989;99(2):181-8
Magnesium alters the potency of cocaine and haloperidol on mouse aggression.
Kantak KM
Department of Psychology, Boston University, MA 02215.

74 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2880351&dopt=Abstract
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1986 Dec;25(6):1195-9
Stimulant-like effects of magnesium on aggression in mice.
Izenwasser SE, Garcia-Valdez K, Kantak KM
In mice injected with 125 mg/kg threat and attack behaviors were decreased.

75 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=6215091&dopt=Abstract
C R Seances Soc Biol Fil 1982;176(3):278-82
[Inhibitory effect of magnesium on the vocalization and fighting of cats treated with carbachol and eserine].
[Article in French]
Samardzic R, Krstic S, Terzic B, Beleslin D
Magnesium sulfate injected into the cerebral ventricles of conscious cats inhibited the vocalization and the fighting

76 http://www.healthy.net/library/journals/ortho/issue7.1/Jom-mw1.htm
Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995
Nutritional Influences on Aggressive Behavior
Melvyn R. Werbach, M.D.
Lower levels of magnesium supplementation increase the number of attacks on intruders while higher levels have the opposite effect.21

77http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=1876145&dopt=Abstract
NIDA Res Monogr 1991;105:615-6
Changes in the behavioral effects of cocaine by magnesium in squirrel monkeys.
Kantak KM
Boston Univ.

78 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2436535&dopt=Abstract
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1986;487:221-30
Aminergic studies and cerebrospinal fluid cations in suicide.
Banki CM, Arato M, Kilts CD
CSF magnesium was found to be significantly lower in the suicide attempters

79 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=2578829&dopt=Abstract
Biol Psychiatry 1985 Feb;20(2):163-71
Cerebrospinal fluid magnesium and calcium related to amine metabolites, diagnosis, and suicide attempts.
Banki CM, Vojnik M, Papp Z, Balla KZ, Arato M
CSF magnesium was found to be significantly lower in both depression and adjustment disorder

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Copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurological diseases.
Bogden JD, Troiano RA, Joselow MM

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Neurologic manifestations of fluid and electrolyte disturbances.
Riggs JE
West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown.
Hypomagnesemia (hypoMg) produce CNS and PNS irritability with seizures and tetany, respectively, being the major clinical manifestations.

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Riggs JE
West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown.
Hypomagnesemia (hypoMg) produce CNS and PNS irritability with seizures and tetany, respectively, being the major clinical manifestations.

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Aillon GA

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Epidemiology 1999 Jan;10(1):31-6
Magnesium and calcium in drinking water and death from acute myocardial infarction in women.
Rubenowitz E, Axelsson G, Rylander R
Department of Environmental Medicine, Goteborg University, Sweden.
The results suggest that magnesium and calcium in drinking water are important protective factors for death from acute myocardial infarction among women.

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J Neurol 1999 Jul;246(7):515-9
Antimigraine drugs.
Diener HC, Kaube H, Limmroth V
Department of Neurology, University of Essen, Germany. h.diener@uni-essen.de
New drugs in migraine prophylaxis include magnesium.

239 abstract.shtml#ms1

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Am J Clin Nutr 1981 Nov;34(11):2364-6
Serum and red cell magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension.
Abraham GE, Lubran MM

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261 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=5358528&dopt=Abstract Br J Psychiatry 1969 Dec;115(529):1375-7
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Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998 Dec 15;861:280
Agonist and antagonist binding to rabbit cortical 5-HT2A receptors: opposite effects of magnesium.
Aloyo VJ, Salt GL, Hoffman ME, Harvey JA
Department of Pharmacology, Allegheny University of the Health Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19129, USA.

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Metabolism 1987 Aug;36(8):788-93
Dietary magnesium intake influences exercise capacity and hematologic parameters in rats.
Keen CL, Lowney P, Gershwin ME, Hurley LS, Stern JS
These data are important because they illustrate the potential significance of even a marginal deprivation of dietary magnesium.

273 conseq.shtml

274 http://www.lonezone.com/HEALTH/HERB/herb13.html

275 Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride.
National Academy Press, 1997, Washington DC. (final draft released Sept. 1999).

276 content.shtml

277 content.shtml

278 content.shtml

279 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. Page 6-5 .
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280 Stendig-Lindberg G, Wacker WE, Shapiro Y: Long term effects of peak strenuous effort on serum magnesium, lipids, and blood sugar in apparently healthy young men. Magnes Res 4:59-65, 1991.

281 tissuemg.shtml

282 Kalbfleish, J. M., et al. Effects of Ethanol Administration on Urinary Excretion of magnesium and other electrolytes in alcoholic and normal subjects. Journal of Clinical Investigations. Vol. 42. 1963.

283 Role of magnesium and calcium in alcohol-induced hypertension and strokes as probed by in vivo television microscopy, digital image microscopy, optical spectroscopy, 31P-NMR, spectroscopy and a unique magnesium ion-selective electrode ALCOHOL. CLIN. EXP. RES. (USA), 1994, 18/5 (1057-1068) abstract.shtml

284 Kalbfleisch JM, Lindeman RD, Ginn HE, Smith WO: Effects of ethanol administration on urinary excretion of magnesium
and other electrolytes in alcoholic and normal subjects. J Clin Invest 42:1471-1475, 1963.

285 Mendelson JH, Ogata M, Mello N: Effects of alcohol ingestion and withdrawal on magnesium states of alcoholics: clinical
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286 Lindeman RD.: Nutritional influences on magnesium homeostasis with emphasis on renal factors. In Magnesium in Health
and Disease,eds M Cantin, MS Seelig, Spectrum, NY,NY, 1980, pp 381-399 (2nd Intl Mg Sympos, Quebec, Canada, 1976)

287 Flink EB, Stutzman FL, Anderson AR, Konig T, Fraser R: Magnesium deficiency after prolonged parenteral fluid administration and after chronic alcoholism complicated by delirium tremens. J Lab Clin Med 43:169-183, 1954.

288 Flink EB: Magnesium deficiency in alcoholism. Alcoh: Clin Exp Res 10:590- 594, 1986.

289 Flink EB, Shane SR, Scobbo RR, Blehschmidt NG, McDowell P: Relationship of free fatty acids and magnesium in ethanol withdrawal in dogs. Metabolism 28:858-865, 1979.

290 Cocaine Induces Rapid Loss of Intracellular Free Mg2+ In Cerebral Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Altura BM, Zhang A, Cheng TPO, Altura BT. European J. of Pharmacology --- Molecular Pharm. Section, 246 (1993) 299-301

291 Consequences of Magnesium Deficiency on the Enhancement of Stress Reactions; Preventive and Therapeutic Implications (A Review) Seelig, M.S. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 13, No. 5, 429-446 (1994)
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292 Consequences of Magnesium Deficiency on the Enhancement of Stress Reactions; Preventive and Therapeutic Implications (A Review) Seelig, M.S. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 13, No. 5, 429-446 (1994)
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293 Consequences of Magnesium Deficiency on the Enhancement of Stress Reactions; Preventive and Therapeutic Implications (A Review) Seelig, M.S. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 13, No. 5, 429-446 (1994)
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294 Ryan MP, Ryan MF, Counihan TB: The effect of diuretics on lymphocyte magnesium and potassium. Acta med Scandinav Suppl 647:153-161, 1981.

295 Widman L, Dyckner T, Wester PO: Effect of moduretic and aldactone on electrolytes in skeletal muscle in patients on long-term diuretic therapy. Acta med Scandinav Suppl 661:33-35, 1982.

296 The Effect of Varying Molar Ratios of Potassium-Magnesium Citrate on Thiazide-induced Hypokalemia and Magnesium Loss. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (Vol. 38, Issue 11) Nov. 1998

297 Influence of injected caffeine on the metabolism of calcium and the retention and excretion of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper in rats. J Nutr. 116(2):273-80, 1986 Feb.

298 Calcium and magnesium contents and volume of the terminal cisternae in caffeine-treated skeletal muscle. J Cell Biol. 99(2):558-68, 1984 Aug.

299 Effect of caffeine and theophylline on Mg ++ -dependent ATPase. Arch Int Physiol Biochim. 80(4):815-8, 1972 Oct.

300 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. Page 6-5 . exhibitk.shtml

301 Durlach, J. (1989): Recommended dietary amounts of magnesium: Mg RDA. Magnesium Res. 2, 195-203.

302 Consequences of Magnesium Deficiency on the Enhancement of Stress Reactions; Preventive and Therapeutic Implications (A Review) Seelig, M.S. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 13, No. 5, 429-446 (1994)
conseq.shtml

303 Consequences of Magnesium Deficiency on the Enhancement of Stress Reactions; Preventive and Therapeutic Implications (A Review) Seelig, M.S. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 13, No. 5, 429-446 (1994)
conseq.shtml

304 exhibitk.shtml

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306 abstract.shtml

307 dur28.shtml

308 exhibitk.shtml

309 abstract.shtml

310 jmgr95_1.shtml

311 genetic.shtml

312 dur19.shtml

313 Durlach, J.; Bara, M.; Guiet-Bara, A.: Magnesium level in drinking water and cardiovascular risk factor: a hypothesis: 1985.

314 Durlach, J., Bara, M., Guiet-Bara, A.: Magnesium level in drinking water: its importance in cardiovascular risk: Magnesium in Health and Disease: 1989.

315 Durlach, J.; Durlach, V.; Rayssiguier, Y.; Bara, M.; Guiet-Bara, A.: Magnesium and blood pressure. II. Clinical studies: Magnesium Research: 1992.

316 Haring, B. S. A.; Van Delft, W.: Changes in the mineral composition of food as a result of cooking in "hard" and "soft" waters: Archives of Environmental Health: Jan./Feb. 1981.

317 Lowik, M. R. H.; Groot, E. H.; Binnerts, W. T.: Magnesium and public health: the impact of drinking water: Toxic Substances in Environmental Health: 1982.

318 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml

319 durwater.shtml

320 marier.shtml

321 SCHROEDER, H. A. 1971. Losses of vitamins and trace metals resulting from processing and preservation of food. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 24: 562-573.

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323 cancer.shtml (Medical Journal Reprint)

324 calcs.shtml (Medical Journal Reprint)

325 africa.shtml (Medical Journal Reprint)

326 alturacv.shtml (Medical Journal Reprint)

327 dur05.shtml (Medical Journal Reprint)

328 Karppanen, H.; Neuvonen, P. J.: Ischaemic heart-disease and soil magnesium in Finland; Water hardness and magnesium in heart-muscle: The Lancet, Dec. 15, 1973.

329 Exhibit O Letters from the Archivist of the American Medical Association concerning prosecution of mineral water.

330 Exhibit P Excerpts from the book, Crazy Water --- The Story of Mineral Wells and Other Texas Health Resorts.

331 Amended Complaint, Points and Authorities, page 7, paragraphs 21-27: "In the Archives of Historical Health Fraud Collection, maintained by the American Medical Association, there are 57 large boxes containing files on water and mineral water companies investigated and prosecuted or persecuted by the FDA, AMA, DOJ, etc

The AMA archivist, Dr. John Zwicky, wrote to plaintiff that, "chemical analyses of the products themselves (revealed) the water was usually anything but pure, clean water (resulting in) notices of federal judgements against the companies. The Historical Health Fraud Collection also has some records of federal agencies such as the Federal Trade Commission, which prosecuted companies for misbranding or other offenses. For other records of federal action against individual companies...contact the FDA... Likewise with the Federal Trade Commission.

Dr. Zwicky's comments indicate the vast extent of the persecution of mineral waters in the United States by the organized powers of government ----- anything other than "pure, clean water" was persecuted, until the American mineral water industry ceased to exist, save for a few small mom-and-pop companies, despite the now-overwhelming scientific evidence of the benefits of Mg-rich water.

48F2d.378 concerns a bottled "healing" mineral water from a spring well-regarded by the Catawba Indians, and named by them in their language, "Healing Water", which was prosecuted by the FDA without a hearing. The District Judge wrote, "We make the finding that this water at the time of trial was free from the criticisms made of it and will continue to be free. We make this finding because the claimants have introduced evidence through the testimony of experts to this effect, which is uncontradicted." Clearly, the FDA was on an unjustified witch-hunt against this "healing water," and attempted to use the Department of Justice as a tool for this persecution.

In 1933, the FDA sent it's "Chamber of Horrors" exhibit of allegedly dangerous products to Chicago's "Century of Progress Exposition", and included Crazy Water mineral crystals in the exhibit. The crystals contained magnesium and other minerals, and were derived from the evaporation of mineral water, for the purpose of making "instant mineral water" by dissolving the crystals in ordinary, low-TDS tap water. Ref: "Crazy Water -- The Story of Mineral Wells and Other Texas Health Resorts", Gene Fowler, Texas Christian University Press, 1991. Vice President Garner ordered the FDA to remove the Crazy Water crystals from its Chamber of Horrors.

The same source cites a booklet by the AMA's Bureau of Investigation, detailing numerous prosecutions by the FDA of mineral water companies. The AMA booklet stated, "No mineral water will be accepted by the medical profession for alleged medicinal properties supported only by testimonials from bucolic statesmen or romantic old ladies." The AMA and FDA have never recanted their disapproval of mineral water, despite overwhelming and conclusive scientific evidence of the benefits of magnesium in water.

The same source recites, "In April, 1991, a congressional sub-committee released a report stating that plain tap water, which costs a fraction of the price of bottled water, may in some cases actually be safer. Blaming lax FDA regulations, the report cited nearly two dozen 1990 cases of bottled water recalls due to the presence of benzene, styrene or mold. (IBWA's) Scoville expressed exasperation with the subcommittee's action, stating that he and others in the industry have been requesting the FDA to adopt stricter regulations for the last 11 years." This is indicative of the continuing antipathy between the FDA and the bottled water industry to the year 1991."

332 Exhibit A Magnesium content of bottled waters from around the world, consolidated from two books: (1) The Good Water Guide, by Maureen & Timothy Green, Rosendale Press, London, 1994. (2) The Pocket Guide to Bottled Water, by Arthur von Wiesenberger, Contemporary Books, Chicago, 1991.

333 Exhibit J USGS study of 91,429 representative stream water samples of magnesium content of American streams.

334 Exhibit E --- From California Dept. of Drinking Water, list of licensed wells containing over 90 mg/L magnesium.

335 Exhibit E --- From Texas Dept. of Natural Resources, list of Texas wells containing over 100 mg/L magnesium.

336 Exhibit PP Web search for "pure water" purveyors.

337 Exhibit BB Abstract of medical journal Article #1, average magnesium content of US tap waters.

338 Prepublication copy, 1997, of the Dietary Reference Intakes for Magnesium, from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science. exhibitk.shtml


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